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Το Deriving from the civil law tradition, public and private law distinction refers to the existence of public authority in a relationship where law applies. Public law includes rules that govern the relations between the State and persons (natural namely individuals or artificial namely a company or corporation etc with legal entity). Sectors of public law are considered the criminal law, the human rights law, the tax or revenue law etc.
Public law can be opposed to Private law which includes rules that govern the relations between persons (natural namely individuals or artificial namely a company or corporation etc, with legal entity) where State is missing. In our times, even in common law countries, the distinction may be used for the classification of the huge amount of law information. Company and banking law, real estate and inheritance law, and even hospitality law can be deemed as fields of private law.